Text A Fallacies about Food
1. be eager to do sth./be eager for sth. 渴望做某事/動詞詞組
2. be supposed to do sth. 應該，被認為去做某事;it is supposed that 人們認為
3. be supplied to sb. 把某物提供給某人
4. substitute A for B 用A來替換B/動詞或名詞詞組
5. wash sth. down sth. 用什么來涑下什么/動詞詞組
6. have to do with/have nothing to with/have much to do with與某人或某事有關/無關/很有關
2. 使役動詞：Eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer. Make后用動詞原形;同樣make也是可以帶賓語補足語的動詞，e.g. eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.
Think也可以帶賓語補足語。E.g. People thought tomatoes poisonous.
3. may have done sth. 表示對過去的推測e.g. He may have cried yesterday. 他昨天有可能哭了。She may have found a job last week. 她有可能上個星期已經找到工作了。
5. it is/was thought that 有人認為
7. Later another wrong idea about tomatoes grew up. Tomato的復數形式需要在詞末加es.
Idea grows up. 出現某種觀點。
8. 冠詞問題：World War II;the Second World War
Text B Do Animals Think?
1. a great deal 非常/副詞詞組，放在動詞后;a great deaf of +n.(不可數)大量
2. be true with(of) sb./sth. 什么什么也是真的;如此/動詞詞組
3. as well 也/副詞詞組，放在句末
4. be engaged in sth./doing 忙于做某事/動詞詞組
5. search for 尋找/動詞詞組
6. in some respects 在一些方面/介詞詞組
7. take care of 照顧/動詞詞組
8. make improvement in 在哪方面取得進步
9. by instinct 本能地/副詞詞組
10. think out 周密考慮/動詞詞組
11. speak of 說到/動詞詞組
12. let sb./sth. out 釋放/動詞詞組
13. a variety of 多種多樣的/表量詞組
14. have no knowledge of sth/sb./doing sth. 對什么人/什么事/做某事一無所知/動詞詞組
2. 倒裝句：hardworking as they are. 此處的as表示although或though，盡管的意思，但用as時，需要把形容詞或副詞放在句首+as+順狀語序。該句話翻譯成：盡管他們很努力工作。E.g. Although I love you much， I still can't help you. 可以轉換成：Much as I love you， I still can't help you. E.g. Though this movie is very moving， I still can't afford time to see it. 可以轉換成：Moving as this movie is， I still can't afford time to see it.
3. sober冷靜的/嚴肅的;其比較級是 more sober
4. could have done/could have been done 本可以做或被做的事而沒有做。
could not have done/could not have been done 本不可能做或被做的事而作了
5. 主語+is not long in doing sth 做某事不會花很長時間
6. 難句：Many of things that animals know how to do they seem to know either without learning， or in some way which we cannot understand. 詞句話為倒裝語序，順裝應為：They seem to know many of things that animals know how to do， either without learning， or in some way which we cannot understand. 其中：either…or…表示“要么…要么…” 把此句可以翻譯成：它們似乎知道很多動物做事的方法，這些方法要么不是靠學到的，要么就是以我們所不理解的方式知道的。
7. 重要句型：We never see frogs engaged in sport.
The owl always looks as if he were considering some important question.(as if的句型里出現了虛擬語氣，由于是對現在的虛擬，所以采用了系動詞were的形式)
Now，if he had had his wits about him， he would have known that there was no use in building a dam where there was no water.(此句為對過去虛擬的句型，原則為if條件句型用助動詞had加上動詞的過去分詞形式，主句用情態動詞would等加上have done 的形式;本句第二個had是have one‘s wits 這個詞組的動詞過去分詞形式;另外，此處的there was no use in 后面只能接動詞的ing 形式)
Animals think much while building their houses.(此句話為省略句型之所以用building，一方面是因為在時間狀語從句里省略了語主句相同的主語animals和系動詞are，另一方面是因為animals 可以發出build的動作，所以用主動的doing形式)
They are said to do sth. 據說……
It is by this instinct that birds build their nests and beavers their dams and huts.(本句話為強調句型;劃線部分為強調句型的基本配置，劃線部分之間是被強調成分)
The reason why…做某事的原因
It is plain that +從句 很明顯
Their minds are so much unlike outs that they do not know the difference between right and wrong. (此句為so …that…句型;unlike為adj.表示不像)